Common Lisp

Table of Contents

1 Emacs Support

1.1 lisp-mode

  • indent-sexp (C-M-q)
  • kill-sexp (C-M-k)
  • mark-sexp (C-M-@)
  • transpose-sexps (C-M-t): point must be between the two sexp. After transpose, point will be after the two sexps

1.2 lisp go-to-def

  • xref-find-definitions (M-.)
  • xref-pop-marker-stack (M-,)

These are supported via general progmodes

1.3 TODO eldoc

1.4 TODO slime-mode

This is minor mode. All the commands are prefixed with slime

Evaluation commands:

  • slime-eval-defun (C-M-x): Evaluate top-level from containing point.
  • slime-eval-last-expression (C-x C-e): Evaluate sexp before point.
  • slime-pprint-eval-last-expression (C-c C-p): Evaluate sexp before point, pretty-print result.

Documentation commands:

  • slime-describe-symbol (C-c C-d C-d): Describe symbol.
  • slime-autodoc-manually (C-c C-d C-a): Apropos search.
  • slime-disassemble-symbol (C-c M-d): Disassemble a function.

Finding definitions:

  • slime-edit-definition (M-.): Edit the definition of the function called at point.
  • slime-pop-find-definition-stack (M-,): Pop the definition stack to go back from a definition.

1.5 paredit

I'm going to use this instead of newer and seemingly fancier smartparens.

It is strict, tries to keep the balance. That means, if you put a ; in between a sexp, the closing parenthesis will be put to the next line. Delete does not work on a double quotes or parenthesis, but instead work your point into it.


  • paredit-kill (C-k): kill inside the sexp
  • paredit-backward-delete (DEL)
  • paredit-forward-kill-word (M-d)
  • paredit-backward-kill-word (M-DEL)


  • paredit-forward (C-M-f)
  • paredit-backward (C-M-b)
  • paredit-backward-up (C-M-u)
  • paredit-forward-down (C-M-d)
  • paredit-backward-down (C-M-p): not so useful
  • paredit-forward-up (C-M-n): not so useful


  • paredit-wrap-round (M-(): wrap parenthesis arount the sexp after point
  • paredit-splice-sexp (M-s): splice the current sexp the point in, into the outer sexp
  • paredit-splice-sexp-killing-backward (M-<up>):
    1. kill backward until the beginning of current sexp
    2. splice current sexp
  • paredit-splice-sexp-killing-forward (M-<down>)
  • paredit-raise-sexp (M-r): raise the sexp after point and replace the outer sexp
  • paredit-convolute-sexp (M-?):
    1. kill the sexp before point
    2. splice the sexp
    3. wrap the outer sexp prefixed with the killed sexp

slurp and barf

  • paredit-forward-slurp-sexp (C-)): add next into current sexp
  • paredit-backward-slurp-sexp (C-()
  • paredit-forward-barf-sexp (C-}): move the last in current sexp outside
  • paredit-backward-barf-sexp (C-{)

Split and join

  • paredit-split-sexp (M-S): split () or string
  • paredit-join-sexps (M-J): join

2 List

The function cons builds lists. If second argument is a list, it adds the first one onto the list. This is called "consing onto the list". cons returns a newly allocated cons. Thus allocating memory from the heap is sometimes generally known as consing. list can also be used to create a list. append connect several list to become one. A proper list is either nil, or a cons whose cdr is a proper list. This definition is recursive. Improper list is shown in dotted notation, and is called a dotted list. The predicate null is specifically test empty list.

A family of functions is used to access elements of the list. The car of a list is the first element, the cdr is everything after the first. Common lisp also provides caar, cdddr, all the combinations up to 4-level. List has some special function to handle. nth and nthcdr is used to access element. first, second, …, tenth can retrieve corresponding element. last, butlast, and rest are also intuitive. nbutlast is the destructive version of butlast.

There are also some functions to access list properties. list-length returns the length. endp is a predicate to check the end of a list

List can be used to represent different data structures.

  1. It can simulate a stack. push and pop are macros, and are defined using setf. pushnew is a variant of push that uses adjoin instead of cons.
  2. List can form a tree. When using cons, the pointers are constructed in the list, thus lists might share components. Sometimes you have to make a copy of a list to avoid chaning other lists.
    • There are two functions to make copies: copy-list and copy-tree. copy-list recursive calls on the cdr of the list, thus it is not deep copy. On the contrary, copy-tree recurs on both car and cdr, thus copy entire list. Similarly, tree-equal can be used to test the equality of the whole tree.
    • To modify the structure of a list, substitute replace elements in a sequence, it does not go into deeper tree. The function subst will replaces elements in tree, deeply. Such form that recursing down both car and cdr is said to be doubly recursive. subst-if and subst-if-not provides the conditional substitution. Their destructive versions are available for efficiency nsubst, nsubst-if, nsubst-if-not.
  3. List can also simulate a set. You can add an item to a set (a list) by adjoin. It will cons the item onto the list if it is not in the set. You can tell the member via member, member-if, member-if-not. Set operations include adjoin, union, intersection, set-difference, set-exclusive-or and their destructive counterparts nunion, nintersection, nset-difference, nset-exclusive-or. You can predict subset with subsetp and tail with tailp.
  4. Finally, Association Lists are maps. This is often called assoc-list or alist, representing mapping. It is only used for small maps, because it is not efficient. The alist is just list of cons cells whose car is key, cdr is value. Apart from build the list of cons cells, parilis can be used to create a alist from lists of keys and values. Add new key value pairs onto the alist with acons. Use assoc to retrieve the first cons cell with the key, and nil if not found. Use setf with assoc to set the value. The condition version of assoc are assoc-if and assoc-if-not. Lisp allows not only map from car to cdr, but also cdr to car with rassoc, rassoc-if, rassoc-if-not. Use copy-alist to copy the alist.
  5. The Property list (plist for short) is similar to alist, but structured differently. It is a flat list, with keys and values intersect each other. E.g. (A 1 B 2). It is less flexible than the alist, and you can only use getf with a key to get the value. getf and setf can be used together to set the value. Use remf to remove a key value pair from the plist. You can also retrieve multiple key-values by get-properties.
    • The special thing about plist is that, each symbol has a plist. It can be retrieved by symbol-plist, but this is rarely used because the whole plist is not often the focus. What you need is get that directly get the key of the plist of the symbol. In other words, (get 'symbol 'key) equals to (getf (symbol-plist 'symbol) 'key). remprop is a similar function to remf.

Mapping is very powerful. The most frequently used is mapcar. It takes a function and some lists. Each time, it takes one element from the lists out as arguments to the function, until some list runs out, and finally return the results in a list. maplist takes the same arguments and does the same thing, but everytime apply function on the cdrs of the lists. Other map functions include mapcan, mapcon, mapc, mapl.

One last trick, the destructuring-bind can be used to bind variables. It cna be used to bind into tree structures.

(destructuring-bind (x y z) (list 1 2 3))
(destructuring-bind (x y z) (list 1 (list 2 20) 3)) ; y = (2 20)
(destructuring-bind (x (y1 y2) z) (list 1 (list 2 20) 3)) ; y1=2

3 Sequence

Sequence contains both lists and vectors. To tell what kind of sequence it is, one can use consp, listp, bit-vector-p, vectorp, simple-vector-p, simple-bit-vector-p, arrayp. You can use length to get the length of a list.

Accessing the element of a sequence with elt. subseq get the subsequence in [begin,end) with index starting from 0.

In modifying a list, reverse and nreverse reverses the list. remove, remove-if, remove-if-not remove from a sequence while the destructive version named delete delete-if delete-if-not. remove-duplicates and delete-duplicates make sure no same element in the sequence. substitute, substitute-if, substitute-if-not replace within the sequence, does not go deeper. nsubstitute nsubstitute-if nsubstitute-if-not are destructive. There are sort and stable-sort, but they are destrictuve, so if in doubt, pass a copy. concatenate (reqiures type) is used for concatenate many sequences into one. merge (requires type) destructively merge two sequence. If both of them are sorted, the result is also sorted.

It is possible to search inside a sequence. find and position returns the element and index of the first match, respectively. Their predicate versions are find-if, find-if-not and position-if, position-if-not. count, count-if, count-if-not returns the count. One can also search a sequence in another.

map (requires return type) maps a function to a sequence. The map also needs a type as first argument. nil means no return, then map will return nil. map-into does not require a type, but the first argument is a sequence that will be destructed. Kind of a mapping, but every, notany and some, notevery are predicates to test on a sequence. reduce differs from map in that it always utilize the previous result in the next computation.

4 String

A string is a specialized vector (one-dimensional array) whose elements are characters. A character object can be notated by writing #\c where c is any standard character.

To access the characters, instead of aref, you can use char which is faster.

In comparision, while numeric value uses =, /= and <, characters have case sensitive (char=, char/=, char<) and insensitive versions (char-equal, char-not-equal, char-lessp). Strings also have case sensitive (string=, string/=, string<) and insensitive versions (string-equal, string-not-equal, string-lessp). This is actually a family of functions: string-greaterp, string-not-greaterp, string-not-lessp.

You can construct a string by make-string with size, or convert from another type to string via string. Trimming a string is handled by string-trim, string-left-trim, string-right-trim. Case conversion can be done by string-upcase, string-downcase, string-capitalize and their destructive versions nstring-upcase, nstring-downcase, nstring-capitalize.

5 Array

Array can be general array, holding arbitrary object types; it can also be a specialized array that hold a given type, which increase the efficiency. One dimentional arrays are called vectors. Vectors holding arbitrary objects are general vectors.

There are two kinds of array: fixed and resizable. An array can be created by make-array. Since vector is more often used, you can simply use vector to create a one-dimension array. When you make an array, you specify the size, making a fixed size array. For resizable, there're two ways. First, you can give a :fill-pointer when making the array. For example (make-array 5 :fill-pointer 0) makes an empty array of capacity 5. This array can be used in vector-push and vector-pop who operates on the :fill-pointer. However, this seems resizable, but the capacity is at most 5. The second way to make the real resizable array is to give :adjustable t option wehn making it. Instead of using vector-push, you use vector-push-extend to operate on it so that it can take care of the capacity. The arrays are all general array that can hold different data types, you can create an array suitable for one type by giving :element-type option.

aref is used to access the element of an array. To replace elements, we use setf with aref. For vector, you might want to use svref, where sv means "simple vector", to access elements faster.

Array holding type bit are called bit-vectors. Bit operations are supported via bit, sbit, bit-and, bit-ior, bit-xor, bit-eqv, bit-nand, bit-nor, bit-andc1, bit-andc2, bit-orc1, bit-orc2, bit-not

6 Structure

Macro (defstruct point x y) will also define make-point, point-p, copy-point, point-x, point-y. The read format is #S.

7 Hash Table

This is a map. make-hash-table creates a hash-table. The test predicate :test for keys can be one of eq eql equal equalp with eql as default.

gethash retrieve from the table. It returns multiple values, with first be the value of the key or nil if no such key. The second value present whether the key is present. Use setf together with gethash can set the hash.

To remove an object from hash table, use remhash. You can also clear the table by clrhash. To iterate through a hash table, use maphash.

8 Symbols & Variables

Lisp is case-insensitive. The program will be converted to upper case when stored in computer. Symbol names can be, in addition to letters and numbers, the following characters can also be considered to be alphabet: + - * / @ $ % ^ & _ = < > ~ . Conventionaly we write +global-constant+ and *global-variable*.

A symbol has a Property List. It can be retrieved by symbol-plist.

Global variable can be defined by defvar and defparameter. Naming convention is put * surrounds it. The difference (Prefer defvar):

  • defparameter will always assign the initial value
  • defvar will do so only if the variable is not defined; defvar can also be used without initial value, the variable will be unbound.

defconstant is used to declare constant. Use + surrounds it. It is possible to redefine the constant using defconstant again, but the behavior is undefined. E.g. the code refer to it might need to be reevaluated to see the update. So, do NOT redefine a constant, otherwise it is not a constant, use defparameter instead.

Local variables have lexical binding, global variables have dynamic binding. Under lexical scope, a symbol refers to the variable where the symbol appears. With dynamic scope, a variable is looked up where the function is called, not where it is defined. To cause a local variable to have dynamic scope, we declare it to be special ((declare (special x))).

Assigning a value to a binding is:

  1. change the binding only, do not change other hidden bindings for this symbol
  2. do not change the value object the binding refers to

The symbol is a reference of the object. Assigning to the symbol will create another reference to another object. But, if the object is mutable, then assign to the reference will change the object. Function parameters are reference. So if the object is mutable, then assigning to the parameter will change the referenced object.

The general assignment operator is setf (place value)+. When assigning a binding, it will call setq (but don't call setq directly!), and returns the newly assigned value. In the document, a SEFTable thing is suitable to be a setf place. Always use setf instead of setq. This is more general. This includes variables, array locations, list elements, hash table entries, structure fields, and object slots.

To make the code more concise, some "f-family" are invented.

(incf x)
(setf x (+ x 1))
(decf x)
(incf x 10)

here incf and decf modifies the argument, so they are called modify macros. Other modify macros:

  • push, pop, pushnew
  • rotatef, shiftf
    • (roratef a b) is equal to (let ((tmp a)) (setf a b b tmp) nil)
    • (shiftf a b 10) shifts all the values left, equals to (let ((tmp a)) (setf a b b 10) tmp)

There are two types of destructive functions:

  • for-side-effect: typically use setf
  • recycling operation

The recycling operations are typically those with n as prefix. 80 percent of the use cases are PUSH/NREVERSE and SETF/DELETE.

 (defun upto (max)
   (let ((result nil))
     (dotimes (i max)
       (push i result))
     (nreverse result)))
 (setf foo (delete nil foo))

sort is also destructive, so use it on a copy of the list. Be sure to assign it back to the variable.

 (defparameter *list* (list 4 3 2 1))
 (sort *list* #'<) ;; (1 2 3 4)
 *list* ;; (4)
 ;; so shoud use:
 (setf *list* (sort *list* #'<))

8.1 Equality

The reason Lisp has no pointer is that every value is conceptually a pointer. For efficiency, Lisp will sometime choose to use some intermediate representation instead of a pointer. E.g. a small integer takes no more space than a pointer, Lisp implementation might just use that. This will introduce difference when testing equility.

  • EQ tests for object identity. Two objects are EQ if they're identical (same object). It CANNOT compare numbers and characters, which gives undefined behavior.
  • EQL is similar to EQ except that it guarantees the same numeric or character value is equal. (eql 1 1) is t.
  • EQ is more efficient than EQL because it does not need to check whether it is numeric or character. But EQL has less trouble to understand .. so use EQL when possible.
  • EQUAL is looser than EQL. It consider objects to be the same as long as they prints the same.
  • EQUALP is even looser. For example, it consider two strings are equal case-insensitively. NEVER use this.

9 Type

Common Lisp is strong typed, but the type is associated with objects, not variables. This approach is called manifest typing. Though type declarations are completely optional, you might want to do this for efficiency.

nil is false, everything else is true nil is both an atom and a list. () is exactly the same as nil

In Common Lisp, the types form a hierarchy. An object always has more than one type. The type t is the super type of all types, so everything is of type t. For example, a number 13 is of type fixnum, integer, rational, real, number, atom, t.

Function typep ((typep obj type)) tests whether an object is of a type. (subtypep type1 type2) tests the type hierarchy.

Type conversion functions are those I found used most but hardly remember, documenting here.

  • parse-integer: string to integer

10 Numbers

Numbers can use read form, e.g. #b010101, #xaf08. Predicates such as numberp, integerp, rationalp, floatp, realp, complexp can test the type of an object. For numbers, zerop, plusp, minusp, oddp, evenp can tests the property.

Number comparison can be <, >, <=, >=, =. These are same as using the operator sequencially on the operands. /= works pairwise. max and min get the maximum and minimum one.

(1+ x) same as (+ x 1). incf and decf are destructive. gcd greatest common divisor, lcm least common multiple.

Scientific computations are supported. exp computes exponential with \(e\) while expt computes general exponential. log computes log to \(e\) if the second parameter is omitted. sqrt is a special case of expt with 1/2 as the power.

The function of type name is used to do convertion, including float, rational. Some types of number have two parts. For ratio, numerator and denominator get the two parts. Break number into two parts can be done by several pairs of functions: signum and abs (sign and value), mod and rem, realpart and imagpart for complex.

Rounding can be done with floor (toward negative infinity), ceiling (toward positive infinity), truncate (toward 0), and round (to nearest integer). Float version is also available: ffloor, fceiling, ftruncate, fround.

Logical operations are available as well. logior, logxor, logand, logeqv, lognand, lognor, logandc1, logandc2, logorc1, logorc2, lognot Besides, boole seems to be a more general function that accept many operations that cover all above.

random create random numbers.

11 Function

The predicate fboundp tells whether there's a function with a given symbol name. symbol-function can retrieve the function object with the symbol. The document of a globally defined function can be retrieved by calling documentation. The function's read format is called sharp-quote, the special form function takes a function name and return the function object. The function object can be obtained by #'.

11.1 Defun and Lambda Expression

defun is a macro.

     (defun name (a b
                  &optional op1
                    (op2 def-value)
                    (op3 def-value op3-supplied-p)
                  &rest rests
                  &key k1
                    (k2 def-value k2-supplied-p)
                    ((:kkkkk3 k3) def-value k3-supplied-p))

lambda expression shares the same structures.

      (a b &optional op1 &rest rests &key k1)

When calling a function, order of consumption matters. First required arguments are consumed, then the optional arguments, then the rest, finally the keyword arguments. Optional arguments can have default values (which defaults to nil), and a variable to indicate whether it is supplied. Keyword arguments are the same as optional arguments, except it must be supplied by keyword. It can be rebound to a simpler name to be used in the body. Finally, never mix (optional, key). You can mix rest and key, but the behavior is, after matching all required and optional, everything are bound to rest. Then appropriate ones are ALSO bound to keyword arguments.

The return value of function is typically the last expression. But you can explicit return from a function by using RETURN-FROM SYMBOL body special form. Symbol is the function name to return, and it is not evaluted. You must provide the function in order to return, which makes it not frequently used. If return multiple values, use values instead of a list; if return no values, use (values). multiple-value-bind can be used to decouple the values. You can pass on multiple values as arguments to a second function using multiple-value-call.

One can apply the object in two ways: funcall and apply. They differ in that funcall accepts the arguments, while in apply the arguments must be a list. The list can be looser, e.g. some arguments, as long as the last one is a list.

In eailier lisp, functions were represented internally as lists. The only way to tell a function from an ordinary list was to check if the first element was the symbol lambda. Common lisp represent function differently, so lambda is no longer necessary.

12 Macro

Macro is designed to abstract away common syntactic patterns.

macroexpand-1 can be used to check the expension in one level.

When designing macros, there are three kinds of leaks of implementation details that you need avoid.

  • multiple evaluation of parameters
    • You must evaluate each param once, because that is the intuition of user of the macro.
    • to fix it, evaluate it ones and bind to a variable
  • order of evaluating parameters
    • you need to make sure the order of evaluation of parameters is from left to right. Again this to follow the intuition of user.
  • variable scope
    • use GENSYM to create name to use. For example the code below, the name is generated at expanding time, and ,name is used whenever you want to use the variable.
  (defmacro mymac (param)
    (let ((name (gensym)))
      `(let ((,name ,param))

13 Evaluation

  • eval form: evaluate form in the current dynamic environment and a null lexical environment
  • evalhook
  • applyhook

The quote operator is a special operator, meaning that it has a distinct evaluation rule of its own: do nothing. (quote (+ 3 5)) is same as '(+ 3 5). It is a way of pretecting expressions from evaluation.

Integers and strings both evaluate to themselves. nil evaluates to itself as well. Empty list () is exactly nil, thus is also self-evaluated.

There are 25 special operators

  • block
  • catch
  • compiler-let
  • declare
  • eval-when
  • flet
  • function
  • go
  • if
  • labels
  • let
  • let*
  • macrolet
  • multiple-value-call
  • multiple-value-prog1
  • progn
  • progv
  • quote
  • return-from
  • setq
  • tagbody
  • the
  • throw
  • unwind-protect

When compile a file, it evaluates all top level forms in the file. If the top level is eval-when, things can be controled. eval-when accepts three different situations, namely :compile-toplevel, :load-toplevel, :execute. You can specify multiple of them, thus can make the top level evaluates at compile time, load time, or both.

There's probably only one eval-when is useful, that is use ALL of them:


should wrap things that need be available in the compilation environment as well as the target environment. E.g. a defined function that is used in defmacro.

14 Exception

A catch expression takes a tag, which can be any kind of object, followed by a body of expressions. A throw with the corresponding tag will cause catch to return immediately. If there's no pending catch with the right tag, the throw causes an error.

Calling error interrupt the execution, and transfer the control to the lisp error handler.

15 Control Structure

15.1 Sequential

  • progn
  • prog1
  • prog2

15.2 Conditional

(if condition then-form [else-form])
(progn forms*)
(when cond forms*)
(unless cond forms*)
(cond (test-1 form*) (test-2 form*))

cond corresponds to switch statement in C. The test predicates are evaluated one by one until one to t, then evaluate the body form, and return the last. To have a default, put a t as the last condition.

Lisp programmers often use the functions and and or to implement simple conditional evaluation. For example,

  ;; use
  (and x (setf y t))
  ;; instead of
  (when x
    (setf y t))
  ;; use
  (or x (setf y t))
  ;; instead of
  (unless x
    (setf y t))

15.3 Iteration

(dolist (var list-form) body-form*)
(dotimes (var count-form) body-form*)
(do (var-def*) (end-test-form result-form*) statements*)

dotimes from 0 to the value of count-form-1, inclusively In do, the var-def is (var init-form step-form). For example:

(do ((i 0 (1+ i))) ((> i 4)) (print i))

15.3.1 Append to a list

Remember that append copies its arguments. Avoid using append inside a loop to add elements to the back of a list. Use the collect clause in loop, or push elements onto a list and then nreverse the list to return the original ordering.


(let ((result ()))
  (dolist (x list)
    (setf result (append result (list x))))


(let ((result ()))
  (dolist (x list)
    (push x result))
  (nreverse result))


  (loop for x in list collect x)

16 Loop Facility

Loop keywords are not true common lisp keywords. They are symbols recognized only by Loop Facility. If you do not use any loop keywords, the loop simply runs forever.

loop is a macro, and expansion produces an implicit block named nil, and it accepts three basic part in its tagbody:

  • loop prologue: execute before iteration begin
  • loop body: execute during each iteration
  • loop epilogue: execute after iteration termination

All variables are initialized in the loop prologue.

16.1 Loop Clauses

Inside the loop is the loop clauses.

Variable initialization and stepping

  • for
  • as
  • with
  • repeat

Value accumulation

  • collect
  • append
  • nconc
  • sum
  • count
  • minimize
  • maximize

Termination conditions

  • loop-finish
  • for
  • as
  • repeat
  • while
  • until
  • always
  • never
  • thereis

Unconditional execution

  • do
  • return

Conditional execution

  • if
  • when
  • unless
  • else
  • end


  • named
  • initially
  • finally

16.2 Loop Syntax

loop ::= (loop [named name] {variables}* {main}*)
variables ::= with | initial-final | for-as | repeat
main ::= unconditional | accumulation | conditional | termination | initial-final
initial-final ::= initially | finally
  • A loop must have at least one clause.
  • loop prologue
    • automatic variable initializations prescribed by variable clauses
    • initially
  • loop epilogue
    • finally
    • implicit return value from accumulation clause or an end-test clause

16.3 Iteration Control (for, as, repeat)

for and as are exctly the same.

Multiple these control can be used. They will occur sequentially: they will not nest.

for var
  [{from | downfrom | upfrom} expr1]
  [{to | downto | upto | below | above} expr2]
  [by expr3]
  • from: default to 0 when increment
  • by: the step, must be positive integer, default to 1
  • downfrom, upfrom, downto, upto: control the direction of increment or decrease.
  • below, above: similar to upto, downto, but do not include the target.
for var in expr1 [by step-fun]
  • it is meant to iterate the list. Bound to element in each iteration
  • At the end of each iteration, the step-fun is executed on the list to produce a successor list. default to cdr.
for var on expr1 [by step-fun]
  • same as in-by, but var is bound to the entire list each time
for var = expr1 [then expr2]
  • var is set to expr1 on first iteration
  • var is set to expr2 on second and subsequent iterations. If no expr2, expr1 is still used.
for var across vector
  • bind to each element. The only difference is now using vector instead of a list.
for var being
  {each | the}
  {hash-key | hash-keys | hash-value | hash-values}
  {in | of}
  [using ({hash-value | hash-key} other-var)]
  • it seems that each and the is the same. Just to make it easy to read:
    • use each for hash-key and hash-value
    • use the for hash-keys and hash-values
  • in and of are also the same
  • hash-key and hash-value controls whether to bind key or value to var
  • using will bind the other part, i.e. value if hash-key and key if hash-value, to another variable for access
for var being
  {each | the}
  {symbol | present-symbol | external-symbol | symbols | present-symbols | external-symbols}
  {in | of}

In package.

repeat expr

repeat the body (expr) times.

16.4 End Test Control (always, never, thereis, until, while)

always, never, thereis change the return value, so

  • it will skip finally clauses.
  • NEVER use it with collect, etc.

The clauses:

  • while expr
  • until expr: equal to while (not expr)
  • always expr: terminate if expr evaluates to nil. Return nil if so. Otherwise return t.
  • never expr: terminate if expr ever evalutes to non-nil. Return nil if so, otherwise return t
  • thereis expr: Same as never, but it return that expr.
  • loop-finish: terminate iteration and return any accumulated result

16.5 Value Accumulation

  • multiple accumulation can be used if they operate the same type, e.g. collect and append operate on list. The result will be combined, i.e. they operate on the same list.
  • If into is not provided, all the operations operate on a default hidden variable.
  • If into is provided, the variable is as-if initialized in with clause.
    • will not have a default value to return
    • the variables are visible in finally clause
  • Only one value can be returned, but you can return multiple objects using values.

Clauses: all of them have xxx expr [into var] format

  • collect expr [into var]
  • collecting expr [into var]: same as collect
  • append
  • appending
  • nconc
  • nconcing
  • count
  • counting
  • sum
  • summing
  • maximize
  • maximizing
  • minimize
  • minimizing

16.6 Variable Initialization (with)

with var [= expr] {and var [= expr]}*
  • if no =expr, it is initialized to appropriate default value
  • by default with initialize variable sequentially
  • using loop keyword and can make the initialization in parallel

16.7 Conditional Execution (if, when, unless)

They all have the same signature:

if expr clause {and clause}*
  [else clause {and clause}*]
  • if and when are exactly the same. unless is equal to if (not expr).
  • in the case of nest, the else is paired with the closest preceding when or if that has no associated else
  • loop keyword it can be used to refer to the value of the test expr. This is a keyword, thus cannot be used as a variable name in loop.
  • end marks the end of the clause. If not specified, the next loop keyword marks the end. This is useful in compound clauses.

16.8 Unconditional Execution (do, return)

  • do {expr}*: execute sequentially
  • doing {expr}*
  • return expr: equivalent to do {return expr}

16.9 Misc (named, initially, finally)

  • named: name a loop so that we can use return-from
  • initially, finally: expressions to be evaluated before and after loop body. There can be multiple these clauses, all of them will be collected into one place inside progn in the order they present.
  • return, always, never, thereis can bypass finally

16.10 Destructure

bind result to a list of variables. This can be used in for and with.

  • If variable list is shorter, the rest values are discarded
  • If value list is shorter, the rest variables initialize to default value

17 Input/Output

These input/output operations perform on streams. Streams are lisp objects representing sources and destinations of characters.

By default, input is read from the stream *standard-input*, output is written to *standard-output*. Conventionally the suffix -input and -output means the input and output stream respectively, while -io represents streams with bidirectional stream. Similar variables include *error-output*, *query-io*, *debug-io*, *terminal-io*, *trace-output*.

read is a complete lisp parser. When inputing a number, it parses and returns the number, instead of a string. read reads up to an expression. read-line read until a newline. read-from-string read an expression from a string. All of these are defined on the primitive read-char which reads a single character. peek-char read the character without removing it from the stream. You can also unread a char by unread-char. parse-integer is often used if you want to get the integer.

prin1 generates output for programs (with double quotes), while princ generates for human. terpri prints a newline. pprint prints with indention. format output the control-string except that a tilde introduces a directive. Most directives use one or more elements of arguments. If no more arguments, signal an error. But it is ok is more arguments are provided and unprocessed. If the destination is nil, a string is created as the output and get returned. Otherwise format returns nil.

A format directive is determined by one single character. It can take optional prefix. The prefix can be separated using : or @ or both. Parameters are separated by comma, and they can be ommited to take the default value. What kind of parameters are accepted is determined by the directive character. The most commonly used directive is ~A which is a place holder for a value printed by princ. ~% outputs a newline. ~F outputs a float number.

A pathname is a portable way to specifying a file. A pathname has 6 components: host, device, directory, name, type, and version.

Open a file as stream by open. It has some keyword arguments to modify its behavior. :direction keywords takes :input, :output or :io. :if-exists takes :supersede. We typically use setf to store the stream returned by open. The steam is closed by close. with-open-file is often more convenient, we don't need to remember to close.

In case you only have a string, it is convenient to use with-input-from-string and with-output-to-string.

18 Package

This is used to solve name conflict.

  • *package*
  • make-package
  • in-package
  • find-package
  • package-name
  • package-nicknames
  • rename-package
  • package-use-list
  • package-used-by-list
  • package-shadowing-symbols
  • list-all-packages
  • delete-package
  • intern
  • find-symbol
  • unintern
  • export
  • unexport
  • import
  • shadowing-import
  • shadow
  • use-package
  • unuse-package
  • defpackage
  • find-all-symbols
  • do-symbols
  • do-external-symbols
  • do-all-symbols
  • with-package-iterator

18.1 Modules

A module is a subsystem. It consists of one or more packages. It may be loaded from one or more files.

  • *modules*
  • provide
  • require

19 Common Lisp Object System

19.1 TODO Concept

19.2 Functions

  • add-method
  • call-method
  • call-next-method
  • change-class
  • class-name
  • class-of
  • compute-applicable-methods
  • defclass
  • defgeneric
  • define-method-combination
  • defmethod
  • documentation
  • ensure-generic-function
  • find-class
  • find-method
  • function-keywords
  • generic-flet
  • generic-function
  • generic-labels
  • initialize-instance
  • invalid-method-error
  • make-instance
  • make-instances-obsolete
  • method-combination-error
  • method-qualifiers
  • next-method-p
  • no-applicable-method
  • no-next-method
  • print-object
  • reinitialize-instance
  • remove-method
  • shared-initialize
  • slot-boundp
  • slot-exists-p
  • slot-makunbound
  • slot-missing
  • slot-unbound
  • slot-value
  • update-instance-for-different-class
  • update-instance-for-redefined-class
  • with-accessors
  • with-added-methods
  • with-slots

20 ASDF (Another System Definition Facility)

20.1 Load ASDF

ASDF should come along with lisp implementations.

  • (require "asdf")
  • (asdf:asdf-version) to check whether it is loaded, what's the version

Alternatively, you can load the specific file by (load "/path/to/asdf.lisp")

The default load path is

  • ~/common-lisp/
  • ~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/

However, quicklisp should already configured the load path.

20.2 Load System

  • (require "asdf")
  • put package somewhere so that ASDF can find it
    • ~/common-lisp/
    • ~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/
  • load by (asdf:load-system "my-system")

Some functions:

  • load-system
  • compile-system
  • test-system
  • make
  • require-system

20.3 Build System

  • (require "asdf")
  • put your code into a new directory called my-system/ inside the findable path:
    • ~/common-lisp/
    • ~/.local/share/common-lisp/source/
  • In the directory, create a new file my-system.asd and specify dependencies
  • load by (asdf:load-system "my-system")

The system is specified using defsystem syntax. An example (hello-lisp.asd):

  ;; Usual Lisp comments are allowed here
  (defsystem "hello-lisp"
      :description "hello-lisp: a sample Lisp system."
      :version "0.0.1"
      :author "Joe User <[email protected]>"
      :licence "Public Domain"
      :depends-on ("optima.ppcre" "command-line-arguments")
      :components ((:file "packages")
                   (:file "macros" :depends-on ("packages"))
                   (:file "hello" :depends-on ("macros"))))

21 Appendix

21.1 Installation

21.1.1 quicklisp

 ;; sbcl --load /path/to/quicklisp.lisp
 (load "/path/to/quicklisp.lisp")

 ;; setting up
 (load "~/quicklisp/setup.lisp")
 ;; load quicklisp when you start lisp

 ;; install/remove a software
 (ql:quickload "clx-truetype")
 (ql:uninstall "clx-truetype")

 ;; query installed packages
 (ql:system-apropos "substring")

 ;; updating all packages
 ;; update quicklisp itself
(ql:quickload "name")
load a system
(ql:system-apropos "term")

A list of packages used:

for stumpwm ttf-font
for stumpwm screenshot

21.1.2 packages

  • cl-quicklisp

21.1.3 org babel

first, start M-x slime, then you can evaluate this:

   (princ message)

21.1.4 Slime

  • slime (emacs IDE)
  • sbcl ("lisp" executer)
  • cl-quicklisp (package manager)

In emacs: start slime

 CL-USER> (load "/path/to/quicklisp.lisp")
 CL-USER> ;; follow screen command to install
 CL-USER> (load "~/quicklisp/setup.lisp") ;; load it

 CL-USER> (ql:add-to-init-file) ;; add to sbcl's init file

 CL-USER> (ql:quickload "clx-truetype") ;; download this package. Packages will be put into "~/quicklisp/xxx/dist"

 CL-USER> (ql:update-all-dists) ;; update
 CL-USER> (ql:update-client) ;; update quicklisp itself

The staff added into .sbclrc:

   ;;; The following lines added by ql:add-to-init-file:
   (let ((quicklisp-init (merge-pathnames "quicklisp/setup.lisp"
   (when (probe-file quicklisp-init)
   (load quicklisp-init))) Commands
command description
C-c C-d d slime-describe-symbol
C-c C-d f slime-describe-function
M-TAB slime-complete-symbol

In a buffer of mode lisp, C-c C-c will evaluate the defun around cursor. C-c C-z will switch to the slime buffer.

21.2 Practical Common Lisp

21.2.1 CD database

   ;; (HEBI: hello world, testing environment)
   (defun hello-world ()
     (format t "Hello, world!"))

   ;; this function makes the cd
   (defun make-cd (title artist rating ripped)
     ;; (HEBI: the list created is a property list. The :key is the key, and followed by the value)
     (list :title title :artist artist :rating rating :ripped ripped))

   ;; make a cd record
   (make-cd "Roses" "Kathy Mattea" 7 t)

   ;; (HEBI: the *xx* is the convention for a global variable)
   (defvar *db* nil)

   ;; (HEBI: The push will push the cd onto the global *db*)
   (defun add-record (cd) (push cd *db*))

   ;; add some records to the database
   (add-record (make-cd "Roses" "Kathy Mattea" 7 t))
   (add-record (make-cd "Fly" "Dixie Chicks" 8 t))
   (add-record (make-cd "Home" "Dixie Chicks" 9 t))

   (defun dump-db ()
     ;; (HEBI: dolist)
     (dolist (cd *db*)
       ;; (HEBI: format)
       ;; the first is the output stream, with t as standard output
       ;; The ~a directive is the aesthetic directive; it means to consume one argument and output it in a human-readable form
       ;; It will work for both keyword and value
       ;; ~t is for tabulating. ~10t means emit enough spaces to move to the tenth column
       ;; ~{ and ~} will make format: 1. require the next argument to be a list 2. consume the elements of the list for each ~a inside them
       ;; ~% emit a new line
       (format t "~{~a:~10t~a~%~}~%" cd)))

   ;; (HEBI: note: the above function can use format to iterate the whole *db* list)
   (defun dump-db-2 ()
     (format t "~{~{~a:~10t~a~%~}~%~}" *db*))

   (defun prompt-read (prompt)
     ;; the *query-io* is a global variable that contains the input stream connected to the terminal
     (format *query-io* "~a: " prompt)
     ;; (HEBI: flush)
     (force-output *query-io*)
     ;; read-line will read the string without the trailing newline
     (read-line *query-io*))

   (defun prompt-for-cd ()
      ;; read a string
      (prompt-read "Title")
      (prompt-read "Artist")
      ;; (HEBI: parse the string to int)
      ;; if nil, the parse-integer will emit error. :junk-allowed t will make it silent
      ;; the surrounding "or" will make a default value of 0 instead of nil
      (or (parse-integer (prompt-read "Rating") :junk-allowed t) 0)
      ;; (HEBI: y-or-n-p) is a builtin function. It is very robust, in the sense that it will reopen the prompt if answer is not yY or nN.
      (y-or-n-p "Ripped [y/n]: ")))

   (defun add-cds ()
     (loop (add-record (prompt-for-cd))
        ;; this loop will end if the another query is answered as n
        (if (not (y-or-n-p "Another? [y/n]: ")) (return))))

   (defun save-db (filename)
     ;; (HEBI: open the file and store the stream) as variable "out"
     ;; filename is the filename string
     ;; direction defaults to :input, so if want output, need to specify
     ;; if-exists, overwrite it
     (with-open-file (out filename
                          :direction :output
                          :if-exists :supersede)
       ;; this is used to ensures that certain variables that affect the behavior of print are set to their standard values.
       ;; be sure to use the same macro when reading the data back
         ;; (HEBI: directly print the *db* to the stream)
         ;; lisp will print the object out in the form that it can be read back
         (print *db* out))))

   ;; now you can save it
   (save-db "~/my-cds.db")

   ;; load the db back
   (defun load-db (filename)
     (with-open-file (in filename)
         ;; use read to (HEBI: read everything from the stream in)
         ;; use (HEBI: setf) to set result of the read to the *db* variable
         (setf *db* (read in)))))

   ;; query
   (defun select-by-artist (artist)
     ;; make a copy of *db* by removing if not the predicate, and return that copy
      ;; (HEBI: getf can get the value of a plist by the key)
      ;; #' is the quote for function
      #'(lambda (cd) (equal (getf cd :artist) artist))

   (defun select (selector-fn)
     (remove-if-not selector-fn *db*))

   (defun artist-selector (artist)
     #'(lambda (cd) (equal (getf cd :artist) artist)))

   ;; use this by:
   (select (artist-selector "Dixie Chicks"))

   ;; keyword argument, can be called by (func :key value)
   ;; default value using (var default)
   ;; (var default var-p) var-p is used to check whether the argument is supplied or not
   (defun where (&key title artist rating (ripped nil ripped-p))
     #'(lambda (cd)
          (if title    (equal (getf cd :title)  title)  t)
          (if artist   (equal (getf cd :artist) artist) t)
          (if rating   (equal (getf cd :rating) rating) t)
          (if ripped-p (equal (getf cd :ripped) ripped) t))))

   ;; use by:
   (select (where :rating 10 :ripped nil))

   (defun update (selector-fn &key title artist rating (ripped nil ripped-p))
     (setf *db*
           ;; (HEBI: mapcar) apply the function to each element of the list, and return the list of results
            #'(lambda (row)
                (when (funcall selector-fn row)
                  ;; this (setf (getf) xx) staff is magic. setf has nothing to do with getf
                  (if title    (setf (getf row :title) title))
                  (if artist   (setf (getf row :artist) artist))
                  (if rating   (setf (getf row :rating) rating))
                  (if ripped-p (setf (getf row :ripped) ripped)))
                row) *db*)))

   ;; this can be called:
   (update (where :artist "Dixie Chicks") :rating 11)

   (defun delete-rows (selector-fn)
     (setf *db* (remove-if selector-fn *db*)))

   ;; OK, refactoring time
   ;; Problems for where:
   ;; the if ... checking inside "and" is almosts the same, that's duplicate code
   ;; for the querys that do not have other fields, we don't want to check those fields, to avoid overhead

   ;; The solution is the MACRO, the code generator of lisp

   ;;; (HEBI: Macros, all kinds of quoting)
   (defun make-comparison-expr (field value)
     ;; ' will leave the expression unevaluated.
     ;; ` will do the same thing, and it can do one more: can evaluate part of it
     ;; , before a subexpression will evalute that
     `(equal (getf cd ,field) ,value))

   (defun make-comparisons-list (fields)
     (loop while fields
        ;; using loop facility, make comparison expr for all the fields
        ;; pop will pop the first of the list
        collecting (make-comparison-expr (pop fields) (pop fields))))

   ;; wrap comparison expr into and clause
   (defmacro where (&rest clauses)
     ;; ,@() will evaluate the subexpression, and splice the resulting list into the surrounding list
     `#'(lambda (cd) (and ,@(make-comparisons-list clauses))))

   ;; this can check what this macro expanded to
   (macroexpand-1 '(where :title "Give Us a Break" :ripped t))

   ;; Final test:
   (select (where :title "Give Us a Break" :ripped t))

21.2.2 Unit Test Framework

   ;; the design goal of a unit test framework:

   ;; - easy to add new test
   ;; - easy to run tests
   ;; - easy to track down test failures

   ;; (HEBI: report test name)
   (defmacro deftest (name parameters &body body)
     "Define a test function. Within a test function we can call
      other test functions or use 'check' to run individual test
     `(defun ,name ,parameters
        ;; (HEBI: hierarchy test name report)
       (let ((*test-name* (append *test-name* (list ',name))))

   (defmacro with-gensyms ((&rest names) &body body)
     ;; gensym generate a unique symbol name that the reader has never seen
     ;; the reason to use such unique name is to avoid leaking of information
     `(let ,(loop for n in names collect `(,n (gensym)))

   (defvar *test-name* nil)

   (defmacro combine-results (&body forms)
     "Combine the results (as booleans) of evaluating 'forms' in order."
     (with-gensyms (result)
       `(let ((,result t))
         ,@(loop for f in forms collect `(unless ,f (setf ,result nil)))

   ;; this will generate
   ;; (let ((result t))
   ;;   (unless (foo) (setf result nil))
   ;;   (unless (bar) (setf result nil))
   ;;   (unless (baz) (setf result nil))
   ;;   result)

   (defun report-result (result form)
     "Report the results of a single test case. Called by 'check'."
     (format t "~:[FAIL~;pass~] ... ~a: ~a~%" result *test-name* form)

   (defmacro check (&body forms)
     "Run each expression in 'forms' as a test case."
       ,@(loop for f in forms collect `(report-result ,f ',f))))

   ;; usage example:
   (deftest test-+ ()
       (= (+ 1 2) 3)
       (= (+ 1 2 3) 6)
       (= (+ -1 -3) -4)))